STATUS:     Environmental Weed
STEMS:     Pale grey and smooth.
LEAVES:     Dark green and wavy with irregular prickles along the margin when mature. Young leaves are rounded.
FLOWERS:     Small off-white flowers are bourne in the leaf axils, developing into a red berry in autumn on female trees.
SEED:     Four to five per berry, held on the tree over winter.
INVADES:     This species invades damp and wet forest areas, riparian where it out-competes and replaces indigenous species.
DISPERSAL:     The fruit are eaten by birds and other animals which disperse the seeds into bushland. They may also be spread in dumped garden waste.
CONTROL:     Hand pulling of seedlings, cut and paint mature plants.  Holly must be completely removed and burned, as cuttings will re-grow if left in contact with the ground.  Straight diesel has been known to kill holly.  We recommend chemical spraying with a cocktail of Brush Off as directed as well as a wetting agent (Pulse) and 10ml per litre of Round Up.